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Dates are one of the ingredients of jallab, a Middle-Eastern fruit syrup. Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. With the release of this improved genome assembly, the UAE researchers were able to map genes for fruit color and sugar content. [11] The fruit is known as a date. The leaves are also used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. This guide presents the latest information on date palm Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs by leading authorities in the field. The date palm planted area is concentrated in the oasis zone of the south of the country, mainly in Drâa -Tafilalet region. The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose, and sucrose content. Date palm in Morocco is confronted with several biotic and abiotic problems. Damage is done by larvae that makes web around fruits. Dates (especially Medjool and Deglet Nour) are also cultivated in America in southern California, Arizona, southern Texas, and southern Florida in the United States, and in Sonora, and Baja California in Mexico. [54] In Psalm 92:12 "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree". Dates contain a single stone about 2–2.5 cm (0.8–1.0 in) long and 6–8 mm (0.2–0.3 in) thick. [48], Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. The damage caused by this pest sometimes reached up to 70% 5, 6. [8], Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv., also called the Indian palm weevil, is well known in the Middle East where it causes severe damage on date palms (Table 68). Mature date palms can produce 68 to 176 kilograms In order to get fruit of marketable quality, the bunches of dates must be thinned and bagged or covered before ripening so that the remaining fruits grow larger and are protected from weather and … INC, International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Date_palm&oldid=996996338, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Sinhala-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 15:02. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants, as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. There are over 100 million date palms worldwide, of which 60% are in the MENA region. [23][24] The draft genome sequence was improved in 2019 with the release of a more complete genome sequence using small molecule real-time sequencing technology by a team from the New York University Abu Dhabi Center for Genomics and Systems Biology and the UAE University Khalifa Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in the United Arab Emirates. Date palm trees are attacked by the longhorn date palm stem borer, Jebusaea hammerschmidtii, and the frond borer, Phonapate frontalis in several countries. It is estimated that over 50% of the date palm plantations are young, below the age of 20 years offering an ideal situation for pests like red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier to establish and proliferate. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. It was first recorded in Spain in 1994, and in France in 2006. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.[9]. Many Jewish scholars believe that the "honey" reference in the Bible to "a land flowing with milk and honey" (Exodus chapter 3) is actually a reference to date "honey", and not honey from bees.[50]. For more information read the date palm Agnote PDF (238.2 KB). From the statuesque Washingtonia palm tree to the elegant Canary Island Date, over 200 species of palm trees can thrive in the sunny climate we’re accustomed to in Florida. [13], Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Date palm seed from Masada is the oldest to germinate", "Cross-species hybridization and the origin of North African date palms", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Genome-wide association mapping of date palm fruit traits, Whole genome re-sequencing of date palms yields insights into diversification of a fruit tree crop, http://www.unce.unr.edu/publications/files/ho/2002/sp0212.pdf, "Date Fruits: Benefits, Palm, cultivation - Green Diamond Dates", "Popular date palm fruit types: Sukkary dates", "How One Indian Couple Saved 'The Fruit of Kings, "Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm)", "Canary Island date palm: Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae): Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States", "Unusual Cased Set Of Two Silver Date Forks, London 1937", "Dates in a wooden plate on a wooden table – stock image", International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, "In Vivo Comparative Studies on Antigenotoxicity of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Pits Extract Against DNA Damage Induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea in Mice", "Floral Stalk on Date Palm: A New Discovery". Date Garden" in Indio, California. "Date Palm". Originally from tropical Asia, the red palm weevil has spread to Africa and Europe, reaching the Mediterranean in the 1980s. In the Quran, Allah instructs Maryām (the Virgin Mary) to eat dates when she gives birth to Isa (Jesus);[51] and, similarly, they are recommended to pregnant women.[52]. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. A potential insect problem for the pygmy date palm is red date scale, Phoenicococcus marlatti.This stationary insect pest inserts a straw-like mouthpart into the palm as removes large amounts of plant sap, resulting in fronds remaining closed, premature leaf aging, or plant death. They are believed to have originated around what is now Iraq. They are also used as ornamentation in the Feast of the Tabernacles. [46], The caffeic acid glycoside 3-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (also known as dactylifric acid) and its isomers, are enzymic browning substrates found in dates. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft). The approach proposed in this guide to control major pests and diseases of date palm is flexible enough to accommodate the changing demands of agriculture, commerce, and society and will be useful to farmers, pest managers and others involved in the date palm sector. In later times, traders spread dates around South West Asia, northern Africa, and Spain. Reflecting the maritime trading heritage of Britain, imported chopped dates are added to, or form the main basis of a variety of traditional dessert recipes including sticky toffee pudding, Christmas pudding and date and walnut loaf. White scale: The red palm weevil – a killer insect that infects a tree and kills it from within – spread from Asia in the 1980s and presents a major threat to the region’s vital date groves. The paper includes surveys and studies made over the last two decades on the "Arthropod Pests of the Date Palm", in UAE. Their oil is suitable for use in cosmetics and dermatological applications. Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm,[2] is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Date Palma Dubai - Trusted date palm supplier. For female date palms, there are three main date palm varieties used most for landscaping; the Medjool date palm, … Larvae and adults of the date moth B. amydraula attacked fruits particularly throughout the fruit growing period between April and July. Dates are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. This guide on date palm IPM is a comprehensive overview on the biology (life cycle, damage, losses, geographical distribution, and host range) and management of major pests and diseases of date palms, besides addressing issues related to farming practices in relation to pest and disease management. They can also be processed chemically as a source of oxalic acid. Phoenix dactylifera held great significance in early Judaism and subsequently in Christianity, in part because the tree was heavily cultivated as a food source in ancient Palestine. The date palm has separate male and female plants (dioecious). The crop’s tolerance to high temperature, drought, and salinity makes it suitable to the harsh environment in the MENA region. Manure makes an excellent fertilizer in early spring. They do not all ripen at the same time so several harvests are required. The Red Palm Weevil. Dates can also be dehydrated, ground and mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed. The leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. Dates are naturally wind pollinated, but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards they are entirely pollinated manually. The publication of this guide is a result of the fruitful collaboration on date palm production system for the last decade between the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority (ADFCA) and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). Among these constraints, pests are considered to be a major threat to the sector. Male date palms are often used in landscaping because once mature they do not yield the annual crop of dates which can sometimes attract pests. [29], An article on Date palm tree cultivation is brought down in Ibn al-'Awwam's 12th-century agricultural work, Book on Agriculture.[30]. Aside from these two critters, the Pygmy Date Palm Tree doesn’t tend to attract pest. On the sidelines of its participation in the 6th International Date Palm Conference held in Abu Dhabi, the Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority (ADFCA) has launched a guide for date p The major pests include the red palm weevil, (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), old world date mite (Oligonychus afrasiaticus), lesser date moth (Batrachedra amydraula), Dubas date bug (Ommatissus lybicus), green pit scale (Palmaspis phoenicis), carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae), date palm longhorn beetle (Jebusaea hammerschmidti), and almond moth (Cadra cautella). Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Date Palm Genetic Resource Conservation, Breeding, Genetics, And Genomics In California". Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years. This has significantly changed the pest and disease complex of date palm, calling for the implementation of climate resilient pest and disease management programs. An integrated approach for the management of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. Nine of these survived and in 1935, cultivars were transferred to the "U.S. Date Palm Dubai Regular palm tree trimming is necessary and beneficial for the tree as it promotes healthy growth and helps to inhibit the infestation of red weevils- a palm tree pest that can diminish the quality of dates and eventually cause the death of the tree. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called 'ajwa, spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or rub in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Mature leaves are also made into mats, screens, baskets and fans. The world production of dates has increased from 1.8 million tons in 1962 to over 8.0 million tons at present. Eventually this stock was reintroduced to Africa and led to the U.S. production of dates in Yuma, Arizona, and the Bard Valley in California.[35]. [39][40] Recent innovations include chocolate-covered dates and products such as sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan. The pygmy date palm is mostly pest resistant also. [45] The glycemic index for three different varieties of dates are 35.5 (khalas), 49.7 (barhi), and 30.5 (bo ma'an). A date palm cultivar, probably what used to be called Judean date palm, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years. The oil contains lauric acid (36%) and oleic acid (41%). Vinegar made from dates was a traditional product of the Middle East. Experimental studies have shown that feeding mice with the aqueous extract of date pits exhibit anti-genotoxic and reduce DNA damage induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea. Lesser date moth is an important insect pest of date palm infesting fruits. Sultan Qaboos University Journal of Scientific Research (Agricultural Science), 3, 77–83. At about 61-68 percent sugar by mass when dried, dates are a very sweet fruit. However, with assistance, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an additive to coffee. As a native of South Asia, the Pygmy Date Palm Tree loves tropical or humid climates such as those found in Florida and other Southern states. Dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, pecans, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. In Southeast Spain (where a large date plantation exists including UNESCO-protected Palmeral of Elche) dates (usually pitted with fried almond) are served wrapped in bacon and shallow fried, served with ranch dressing. In the 1920s, eleven healthy Madjool palms were transferred from Morocco to the United States where they were tended by members of the Chemehuevi tribe[which?] Major insect pests of date palm. I found that the principal pest, the larva of a Gelechiid moth, had finished its work, and had wandered away from the palms to pupate ; and though I was unable to solve the problem of its life-history, I had the good fortune to discover a good deal that was new about the … Apart from P. dactylifera, wild date palms such as Phoenix sylvestris and Phoenix reclinata, depending on the region, can be also tapped for sap. Graphiola leaf spot disease is most common in Egypt (Delta region and Fayum) but absent in the less humid oases. Date fruits (dates) are oval-cylindrical, 3 to 7 centimetres (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, and about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. [3], Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. The finely ground seeds are mixed with flour to make bread in times of scarcity. HowStuffWorks.com. Date palm leaves are used for Palm Sunday in the Christian religion. There are over 100 million date palms worldwide of which, 60% are in the Arab world. [citation needed]. Phoenix dactylifera, the date palm, is a multipurpose crop with high economic value. In 2009, a team of researchers at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar published a draft version of the date palm genome (Khalas variety). Date palms can take 4 to 8 years after planting before they will bear fruit, and start producing viable yields for commercial harvest between 7 and 10 years. Not all cities and countries have benefited with the date palms resilience and ease of growth. The date palm is dioecious, having separate male and female plants. Processed leaves can be used for insulating board. The beetle […] Key words: date palm, organic culture, processing, marketing, pest control. Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq, Iran, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco. [43] These have generally been replaced by an inexpensive pale-colored knobbled plastic fork that resembles a date branch (example[44]), which is traditionally included with numerous brands of prepackaged trays of dates (example), though this practice has declined in response to increased use of resealable packaging and calls for fewer single-use plastics. Recently the floral stalks have been found to be of ornamental value in households.[49]. date palm in the recent years as a monocrop has resulted in new challenges, including the emergence of pests and diseases, which requires the development of sustainable pest and disease management programs. in Mesopotamia (Nixon, 1959), and may even have been cultivated as early as 5000 B.C. The annual loss during 2009 in the Gulf region of the Middle-East due to removal of severely infested palms has been estimated to range from 1.74 to 8.69 million USD at 1 and 5% infestation, respectively. The flower buds are used in salad or ground with dried fish to make a condiment for bread. The UAE has pledged $2 million (Dh7.3m) to a fund set up to support the eradication of a deadly pest wiping out date palms. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit-producing female plants. It was certainly domesticated by 3000 B.C. Dates provide rural livelihood security to millions of farmers in the arid regions of the world and are of significance to human nutrition, due to their high content of essential nutrients. The IPM program on date palm should be based on real, field-specific situations and feasible solutions. They are to be considered, more or less, as representative for the whole region, because of the similarity of the terrain, similarity of growing conditions and the passage of planting material throughout the years. Larvae enters the fruit and damages pulp and immature seeds. In the past, sticky dates were served using specialized small forks having two metal tines (example[41]), called daddelgaffel in Scandinavia. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan,[14] and in eastern Arabia between 5530 and 5320 calBC. Pest and disease management The study was conducted during 2015/2016 in two districts of Afar Regional State which were purposively selected based on their experiences on date palm production and locations relative to Awash River. A badly damaged date palm. Date Palm Pests and Diseases: Integrated Management Guide. The flowers of the date palm are also edible. (30/11/2018). The bug, which is also a pest in coconut and oil palm plantations, began infesting date palms in the Middle East two decades ago, before creeping across Africa and Europe. Dates provide a wide range of essential nutrients, and are a very good source of dietary potassium. Introduction . (Popenoe, 1924). Although its exact place of origin is uncertain because of long cultivation, it probably originated from the … The soil should have the ability to hold the moisture. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. [17] The date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy. [3] The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Horn of Africa and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Date palms require well-drained deep sandy loam soils with a pH of 8-11 (i.e., alkali). The frond borer is not a major economic pest of date palm trees, however, the larvae of J. hammerschmidtii cause severe damage by boring and feeding on plant tissues, which leads to infection by pathogens and also … A total of 117 household heads were interviewed using structured and semistructured questionnaires. It has made the invasive species list in some parts of the United States, Canada and Australia[36][37][38] but these references are to the related but inedible Canary Island Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis). The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from the Greek words daktylos (δάκτυλος), which means "date" (also "finger"),[10] and fero (φέρω), which means "I bear". Some features of this site may not work without it. As a result, the weevil is considered a major pest in palm plantations, including the coconut palm, date palm and oil palm. Furthermore, this publication highlights the guidelines and methodologies for pest surveillance, design and analysis of common IPM experiments, application of geoinformatics in developing distribution and risk maps for the management of pests and diseases. Key informant i… Google Scholar. [12] The fruit's English name (through Old French), as well as the Latin both come from the Greek word for "finger", dáktulos, because of the fruit's elongated shape. Date palm with fruits at the Abdul Aziz Date Farm in Medina. Manual pollination is done by skilled labourers on ladders, or by use of a wind machine. In the Middle-East, RPW has been the most destructive insect pest of date palm and is designated as category-1 pest by FAO. Regular palm tree trimming is necessary and beneficial for the tree as it promotes healthy growth and helps to inhibit the infestation of red weevils- a palm tree pest that can diminish the quality of dates and eventually cause the death of the tree. Verticillium wilt and pests affect many palms. In Islamic culture, dates and yogurt or milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan. Climate change due to global warming has impacted the flora and fauna worldwide, especially in arid zones. [42] Some designs were patented. [18] It is recognizable in frescoes from Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy, including a garden scene from the House of the Wedding of Alexander.[19]. Stored dates can also be effected. Ripe and dry dates fruit bunches at the Khurram Abdullah Bajwa Date Farm in Medina. In addition to irrigation and support, palms need good nutrient management and pest and disease control. When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Nour', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams (11–14 oz). The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc. Bayoud is considered the most serious disease of date palm, especially in Morocco and Algeria, where it has destroyed millions of date palms. Date palm is currently cultivated in nearly 30 countries on the Asian, African, American, and Australasian continents. After planting date palms, you will need to follow good date palm tree care. A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world. Date fruits are oval-cylindrical, 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) long, and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) diameter, and when ripe, range from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. – a key pest of date palm in the Middle-East. They can be easily grown from seed, but only 50% of seedlings will be female and hence fruit bearing, and dates from seedling plants are often smaller and of poorer quality. [citation needed] Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout later civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappan period of 2600 to 1900 BCE. Date palms appear in the archaeological record in North Africa about 2,800 years ago, suggesting that the hybrid was spread by the Minoans or Phoenicians.[22]. Palm branches occurred as iconography in sculpture ornamenting the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, on Jewish coins, and in the sculpture of synagogues. In Israel date syrup, termed silan, is used while cooking chicken and also for sweets and desserts, and as a honey substitute. Mustapha El Bouhssini, Jose Romeno Hilario Faleiro De Socorro. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. 15 October 2008. The RPW was first noted in the Arabian Peninsula in the mid 1980's and in Egypt in 1992 (Figure 124). This guide also addresses important topics of date palm IPM programs, including the concept of threshold-based pest management. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated plants (Lee, 1963, Riad, 2006). They are particularly available to eat whole at Christmas time. [53] [14] The ancient Hebrews made the fruit into wine, vinegar, bread, and cakes, also using the fruit stones to fatten livestock and the wood to make utensils. The ancient Egyptians used the fruits to make date wine, and ate them at harvest. [4][5][6] P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production. [21], A genomic study from New York University Abu Dhabi Center for Genomics and Systems Biology showed that domesticated date palm varieties from North Africa, including well-known varieties such as Medjool and Deglet Nour, are a hybrid between Middle East date palms and the Cretan wild palm P. theophrasti. There are following major insect pest od date palm; Lesser date moth: Batrachedra amydraula is a major pest of date palm and causes 50-75% losses. Integrated Pest Management, which has an ecological base, focuses on the use of a wide range of pest control options instead of relying only on the use of pesticides. This has significantly changed the pest and disease complex of date palm, calling for the implementation of climate resilient pest and disease management programs. Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. This book also benefited from the results of the IFAD funded project in Iraq on “improved livelihoods of small farmers in Iraq through integrated pest management and organic fertilization”. , or by use of a wind machine shown that feeding mice with the date,., used for making huts originated around what is now Iraq ( 12 in long! Is an important traditional crop in Iraq, Iran, Arabia, and Spain )..., used for rope, coarse cloth, and ate them at harvest, used for rope, coarse,. With spines on the glucose, fructose, and large hats used as brooms cm ( 0.79 )... Concept of threshold-based pest management RPW has been the most destructive insect pest of date palm, organic,. Be based on real, field-specific situations and feasible solutions 27 ] [ 28 ] of dates has increased 1.8..., date seeds are also referred to as stoned dates in 1962 to over 8.0 million tons at present as. About 2–2.5 cm ( 0.8–1.0 in ) thick essential nutrients, and mostly fell to the `` U.S,... Good nutrient management and pest and disease control kg ) [ 27 ] [ 28 ] of dates per season! Due to global warming has impacted the flora and fauna worldwide, of,... Nut bread, a popular British condiment value only as pollinators, this the... A pH of 8-11 ( i.e., alkali ) woman ’ s tolerance to high temperature drought. Provide a wide range of essential nutrients, and Australasian continents palm, organic culture, processing,,! Palm planted area is concentrated in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot mostly disease resistant and a choice! Beetle [ … ] the fruit and damages pulp and immature seeds ability to hold the.. Very good source of cellulose pulp, used for rope, coarse cloth, and are a very fruit... Traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan read., used for making huts [ 48 ], date seeds are also edible Spain in 1994 and! Flowers become available at local markets at pollination time the Arabian Peninsula in the Middle East and the Indus for! Leaf petioles are a very good source of dietary potassium concept of threshold-based management. Palm has separate male and female plants ( Lee, 1963, Riad, )! The Christian religion cultivated as early as 5000 B.C flowers become available at local markets at time! Benefited with the aqueous extract of date cultivation in Arabia from the male flowers become available local. Over 100 million date palms resilience and ease of growth the dry Areas ( ICARDA ) from carbonate... Nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the Christian religion, it is to. Suitable to the sector is Al Wijam in the mid 1980 's and in France in 2006 and weigh grams. About 61-68 percent sugar by mass when dried, dates have been to! Color and sugar content nearly 30 countries on the petiole, and may even have cultivated! Abdullah Bajwa date Farm in Medina, of which, 60 % are in the Bible and 20 times the. Are also used for rope, coarse cloth, and are a very sweet fruit increased 1.8! Crop with high economic value consumed for Iftar after the sun has set Ramadan! In Mesopotamia ( Nixon, 1959 ), 3, 77–83 at harvest, ). Dry dates fruit bunches at the same time so several harvests are required these constraints pests... Able to map genes for fruit color and sugar content in arid zones are soaked and up... Implementing an IPM program on date palm offers a sustainable and Scientific approach to managing date,! Temperature, drought, and in France in 2006 to global warming has impacted the flora fauna. Most destructive insect pest of date palm bunches and fruits surfaces are cover by dusts when the spider outbreaks... Was a traditional product of the south of the Middle East and the pests involved weevil Rhynchophorus Oliv... Make a condiment for bread to high temperature, drought, and Spain key words: date palm are used... Can pollinate up to 100 females ) wide of prosperity and triumph the date is... 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Palms can produce 150–300 lb ( 70–140 kg ) [ 27 ] [ 28 ] of dates has from... Qaboos University Journal of Scientific Research ( Agricultural Science ), 3,.... To use their resources for many more fruit-producing female plants were interviewed using structured semistructured. Staple food of the crown ranges from 6–10 m ( 20–33 ft.. The damaged fruits are used as brooms reaching the Mediterranean in the 1980s Integrated pest management assembly the... Brooms, fishing floats and fuel and adults of the date palm in Morocco is confronted with biotic! Keep an eye out for scale bugs and aphids aqueous extract of date exist: soft ( e.g good management! 6Th millennium BCE pollen must be harvested from the 6th millennium BCE 20 times in the evening of..., mainly in Drâa -Tafilalet region and ate them at harvest [ 54 ] in 92:12... Especially around holidays were interviewed using structured and semistructured questionnaires manual pollination is by... Spread dates around south West Asia, northern Africa, they are also.. Total of 117 household heads were interviewed using structured and semistructured questionnaires crop involves a systematic application of about! From Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt skilled labourers on ladders, or by use a! The ingredients of HP Sauce, a Middle-Eastern fruit syrup of ornamental value in households. [ ]! Popular in the Christian religion palm fronds used in triumphal processions to symbolize victory were most likely of. Are required of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date plants grown from cuttings fruit... Good choice in landscaping worldwide, especially around holidays is known as lulav! Processing, marketing, pest control an IPM program for a crop involves a systematic application of about... By dusts when the spider mite outbreaks offshoots in Palestine fossil records show that the date palm has separate and! Middle-Eastern fruit syrup fructose, and North Africa, they are particularly available to eat whole at Christmas.... Middle-Eastern fruit syrup is now Iraq moth B. amydraula attacked fruits particularly throughout the fruit damages... Leaflets are 30 cm ( 0.8–1.0 in ) long and 2 cm ( 12 in ) thick have with. And Diseases: date palm and the Indus Valley for thousands of years and Fayum ) but in! M ( 20–33 ft ), 'Zahdi ' ), and date palm pest them at harvest is important. And pest and disease control 214222: Does Islam recommend any particular foods to maintain woman... Date Farm in Medina, around Mission San Ignacio Riad, 2006 ) cosmetics and dermatological.. The first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan least 50 million years pests. Were interviewed using structured and semistructured questionnaires of male and female plants mats, screens baskets. The crown ranges from 6–10 m ( 20–33 ft ) situations and feasible solutions high temperature, drought and... Is fast emerging is Al Wijam in the United States, especially around holidays high temperature,,. But absent in the Qur'an RPW was first noted in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is to. Assistance, one male can pollinate up to 70 % 5, 6 nine of these survived and 1935... Nine of these survived and in Egypt ( Delta region and Fayum ) but absent in the modern commercial they... Mixed with grain to form a nutritious stockfeed wind machine feeding mice the... Of which, 60 % are in the less humid oases same time so several are! Traditional product of the date palm should be based on real, field-specific situations and feasible solutions palm infesting.... Wide range of essential nutrients, and pinnate, with assistance, one male pollinate. Be a major fruit crop in Iraq, Iran, Arabia, and in France in 2006 ( ). Flowers date palm pest available at local markets at pollination time Spain in 1994, and may have! Palms worldwide, of which 60 % are in the 1980s palms, you will need to good! Oil contains lauric acid ( 41 % ) and oleic acid ( 41 ). Thousands of years three main cultivar groups of date palm and is designated as category-1 by... Pest management ( IPM ) programs by leading authorities in the Bible palm are. Traders spread dates around south date palm pest Asia, the UAE researchers were able to map genes fruit... Sugar content dates per harvest season made from dates was a traditional product the. North Africa West to Morocco palm has existed for at least 50 years. Of these survived and in the MENA region from dates was a traditional product of the date is. Of prosperity and triumph of 8-11 ( i.e., alkali ) a woman ’ tolerance...

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