This step allows the tantalum and niobium to be separated from the various non-metallic impurities in the rock. Discovered by: Anders Gustaf Ekenberg: Common Compounds: Tantalum carbide (TaC) Tantalum chloride (TaCl 5) Tantalum nitride (TaN) Tantalum pentoxide (Ta 2 O 5) Tantalum telluride (TaTe 2) Interesting facts: It is highly corrosion-resistant. , The best studied chalcogenide is TaS2, a layered semiconductor, as seen for other transition metal dichalcogenides. Closely associated with niobium in ores and in properties, tantalum was discovered (1802) by the Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekeberg and named after the mythological character Tantalus because of the tantalizing problem of dissolving the oxide in acids. tantalum (symbol Ta) Rare, lustrous, blue-grey metallic element. The metal is highly biocompatible and is used for body implants and coatings, therefore attention may be focused on other elements or the physical nature of the chemical compound. Show Notes. Because the dielectric layer can be very thin (thinner than the similar layer in, for instance, an aluminium electrolytic capacitor), a high capacitance can be achieved in a small volume. Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (1767-1813) discovered and named tantalum in 1802. Tantalum (Ta; atomic weight 180.95, atomic number 73; named by a Swedish chemist Anders Gustaf Ekeberg who discovered tantalum, in honour of Tantalus, a Phrygian king in Greek mythology) is a chemically very resistant metal. , The stated aim of the Solutions for Hope Tantalum Project is to "source conflict-free tantalum from the Democratic Republic of Congo". The chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment, and as a substitute for platinum. The chief problem is that tantalum ores contain significant amounts of niobium, which has chemical properties almost identical to those of Ta. from Audemars Piguet, F.P. However, radioactivity of this nuclear isomer has never been observed, and only a lower limit on its half-life of 2.0 × 1016 years has been set. He was born in Sweden and graduated from the University of Uppsala in 1788. Unfortunately for Ekeberg, in 1809 the well-known English chemist Willian Wollaston said there had been no discovery and there was no new element. Tantalum was discovered in Sweden in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg, in two mineral samples – one from Sweden and the other from Finland. , The name tantalum was derived from the name of the mythological Tantalus, the father of Niobe in Greek mythology.  The high stiffness of tantalum makes it necessary to use it as highly porous foam or scaffold with lower stiffness for hip replacement implants to avoid stress shielding. Ekeberg was born in Sweden and graduated from the University of Uppsala in 1788. He forced Tantalus to stand in a vat filled with water up to his chin. It is present in abundance at the core or center of the earth. The Distribution of Tantalum Resources in the World Unfortunately for Ekeberg, in 1809 the well-known English chemist Willian Wollaston said there had been no discovery and there was no new element. This indicates detrital origin. In 1802, the Swedish chemist A.G. Ekaberg (1767-1813) discovered new elements while analyzing niobium-tantalite ore from Scandinavia. Raw tantalum rarely occurs in nature.  The tantalum and niobium fluoride complexes are then removed from the aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction into organic solvents, such as cyclohexanone, octanol, and methyl isobutyl ketone. He embarked on a teaching career at Uppsala where he presented chemical expositions and analysed minerals. Subsequent to removal of the niobium, the solution of purified H2[TaF7] is neutralised with aqueous ammonia to precipitate hydrated tantalum oxide as a solid, which can be calcined to tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5).. Mineral columbite is the main source of this element. It is part of the refractory metals group, which are widely used as minor components in alloys. The alpha phase is relatively ductile and soft; it has body-centered cubic structure (space group Im3m, lattice constant a = 0.33058 nm), Knoop hardness 200–400 HN and electrical resistivity 15–60 µΩ⋅cm. The minerals of Ytterby, Sweden were a particular interest. After graduation from the University of Uppsala (1788) and travels in Germany, Ekeberg returned to Uppsala and began teaching (1794), introducing the chemistry of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier.  The ground state of 180Ta has a half-life of only 8 hours. Chemistry of Tantalum Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 31666; Contributors and Attributions; Named for the mythological character Tantalus by Anders Ekenberg who discovered it in 1802, tantalum is a heavy, gray metal that resembles the more expensive platinum in many respects and is sometimes used as an economical substitute for that element.  It is also occasionally used in precious watches e.g. Bulk tantalum is almost entirely alpha phase, and the beta phase usually exists as thin films obtained by magnetron , Little data is available on tantalum concentrations in the different environmental compartments, especially in natural waters where reliable estimates of ‘dissolved’ tantalum concentrations in seawater and freshwaters have not even been produced. , All welding of tantalum must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium in order to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases.  The oxide is used to make special high refractive index glass for camera lenses. Tantalum was discovered in Ytterby, Sweden. ), Swedish chemist who in 1802 discovered the element tantalum. Tantalum has a shaky history and origin since it was discovered by multiple people who taught that it was just a plain old mineral. It exists in combination with niobium, that is quite similar to tantalum in various characteristics. Upper Crust Concentration (UCC) and the Nb/Ta ratio in the upper crust and in minerals are available because these measurements are useful as a geochemical tool. Anders Gustav Ekeberg, Swedish chemist who in 1802 discovered the element tantalum. The origin of the name comes from the Greek word Tantalos meaning father of Niobe in Greek mythology, (tantalum is closely related to niobium in the periodic table). Niobium was named for the mythical daughter of Tantalus, Niobe. Tantalum is dark (blue-gray), dense, ductile, very hard, easily fabricated, and highly conductive of heat and electricity. The differences between tantalum and niobium were demonstrated unequivocally in 1864 by Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand, and Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville, as well as by Louis J. Troost, who determined the empirical formulas of some of their compounds in 1865. Many scientists believed that he had only discovered an allotrope of niobium, an element that is chemically similar to tantalum.  Tantalite (Fe, Mn)Ta2O6 is the most important mineral for tantalum extraction. It was discovered from a sample of minerals from Ytterby, Sweden. Instead of requiring the input oxide and output metal to be in liquid form, tantalum electrolysis operates on non-liquid powdered oxides. Journe, Hublot, Montblanc, Omega, and Panerai. Lanthanum tantalate (LaTaO4) contains isolated TaO3−4 tetrahedra. The slag from the tin smelters then contains economically useful amounts of tantalum, which is leached from the slag.  Further confirmation came from the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, in 1866, who proved that there were only two elements. This property makes it a useful metal for chemical reaction vessels and pipes for corrosive liquids. These discoveries did not stop scientists from publishing articles about the so-called ilmenium until 1871. It is easily fabricated and a good conductor of heat and electricity. Tantalum metallurgy is catego…  Some values on dissolved concentrations in oceans have been published, but they are contradictory. Most commonly encountered are oxides of Ta(V), which includes all minerals. Common Uses Tantalum is capable of capturing oxygen and nitrogen by forming nitrides and oxides and therefore helped to sustain the high vacuum needed for the tubes when used for internal parts such as grids and plates. Tantalite (Fe, Mn) mineral is commonly used for the extraction of tantalum.  However, although important for the local economy in Congo, the contribution of coltan mining in Congo to the world supply of tantalum is usually small. Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) adopts a perovskite structure. The metal is renowned for its resistance to corrosion by acids; in fact, at temperatures below 150 °C tantalum is almost completely immune to attack by the normally aggressive aqua regia.  Wodgina produces a primary tantalum concentrate which is further upgraded at the Greenbushes operation before being sold to customers. A tantalum-tellurium alloy forms quasicrystals. Tantalum was discovered in Sweden in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg, in two mineral samples – one from Sweden and the other from Finland. In 1809, William Hyde Wollaston, a British chemist, analysed both columbite and tantalite mineral specimens and claimed that columbium and tantalum were the same element. ", For decades, the commercial technology for separating tantalum from niobium involved the fractional crystallization of potassium heptafluorotantalate away from potassium oxypentafluoroniobate monohydrate, a process that was discovered by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in 1866. In 1802, the Swedish chemist A.G. Ekaberg (1767-1813) discovered new elements while analyzing niobium-tantalite ore from Scandinavia. Although Ta occurs as various minerals, it is conveniently represented as the pentoxide, since most oxides of tantalum(V) behave similarly under these conditions. Tantalus was a son of Zeus, the major Greek god. Beginning in 2007 and through 2014, the major sources of tantalum production from mines dramatically shifted to the DRC, Rwanda, and some other African countries. Most widespread minerals containing Tantalum; This list of minerals containing Tantalum is built from the mindat.org locality database. Applications. Ekeberg discovered tantalum in 1802, while he … VAT number: BE0414.408.447 RPM Nivelles Columbium and niobium were shown to be the same element. He concluded that the two oxides, despite their difference in measured density, were identical and kept the name tantalum. The elemental form of tantalum was discovered by De Marginac in 1864, but it was impure. Iridium: Discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant 78. The minerals of Ytterby, Sweden were a particular interest. Tantalum was discovered in Sweden in 1802 by Anders Ekeberg and isolated in 1820 by Jöns Berzelius. Word origin: Tantalum is named after a Greek mythological character, Tantalos. Tantalum was discovered by Anders Ekeberg in 1802 . Tantalum is also produced in Thailand and Malaysia as a by-product of the tin mining there. (If he bent to drink the water, it drained below the level he could reach, and if he reached for the fruit, the branches moved out of his grasp. Ekeberg discovered tantalum in 1802, while he … Oxides of tantalum in lower oxidation states are numerous, including many defect structures, and are lightly studied or poorly characterized. Tantalum was discovered by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (SE) in 1802. At levels of 2500 mg/m3, tantalum is immediately dangerous to life and health.  De Marignac was the first to produce the metallic form of tantalum in 1864, when he reduced tantalum chloride by heating it in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Disclaimer, TANTALUM-NIOBIUM INTERNATIONAL STUDY CENTER, © 2020 T.I.C. Website Delivered as a Service by. An external shell of 181Ta would be irradiated by the intensive high-energy neutron flux from a hypothetical exploding nuclear weapon. It is proposed that oxyfluoride H2[NbOF5] is formed under these conditions. Anders Ekeberg in 1802. A simplified equation for its extraction is thus: Completely analogous reactions occur for the niobium component, but the hexafluoride is typically predominant under the conditions of the extraction. Tantalum, always together with the chemically similar niobium, occurs in the mineral groups tantalite, columbite and coltan (the latter is a mix of columbite and tantalite, though not recognised as a separate mineral species). , As in the cases of other refractory metals, the hardest known compounds of tantalum are nitrides and carbides. ) Anders Ekeberg wrote "This metal I call tantalum ... partly in allusion to its incapacity, when immersed in acid, to absorb any and be saturated. The Wodgina mine was reopened in January 2011 after mining at the site was suspended in late-2008 due to the global financial crisis.  Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. Tantalum was discovered by Anders G. Ekeberg in 1802, in Uppsala, Sweden, in the minerals tantalite from Finland and yttrotantalite from Sweden. Anders Ekeberg in 1802. Marignac developed a procedure in 1866 to achieve their separation via the use of potassium double fluoride salts of tantalum and niobium. According to an October 23, 2003 United Nations report, the smuggling and exportation of coltan has helped fuel the war in the Congo, a crisis that has resulted in approximately 5.4 million deaths since 1998 – making it the world's deadliest documented conflict since World War II. The team discovered that tantalum-187's gamma-ray 'fingerprint' was characteristic of a prolate (American football) shape but simultaneously with a hint of an oblate (pancake) shape.  Tantalum was extensively used in the production of ultra high frequency electron tubes for radio transmitters. Its name originates from the name of a villain from Greek mythology, Tantalus.  The supposed element "pelopium" was later identified as a mixture of tantalum and niobium, and it was found that the niobium was identical to the columbium already discovered in 1801 by Hatchett. It is ranked as the 33rdmost common element in Earth’s crust. He renamed columbium as niobium after Niobe, the daughter of Tantalus. The chemical properties of Ta and Nb are very similar. Whenever Tantalus bent to take a drink, the water dropped … , Tantalum is inert against most acids except hydrofluoric acid and hot sulfuric acid, and hot alkaline solutions also cause tantalum to corrode. , People can be exposed to tantalum in the workplace by breathing it in, skin contact, or eye contact. 180mTa (m denotes a metastable state) is predicted to decay in three ways: isomeric transition to the ground state of 180Ta, beta decay to 180W, or electron capture to 180Hf. In the story, he had been punished after death by being condemned to stand knee-deep in water with perfect fruit growing above his head, both of which eternally tantalized him.  Because of its ductility, tantalum can be drawn into fine wires or filaments, which are used for evaporating metals such as aluminium. , Tantalum has been examined theoretically as a "salting" material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is the better-known hypothetical salting material). Separation of the tantalum from niobium is then achieved by lowering the ionic strength of the acid mixture, which causes the niobium to dissolve in the aqueous phase. Its main use today is in tantalum capacitors in electronic equipment such as mobile phones, DVD players, video game systems and computers. He embarked on a teaching career at Uppsala where he presented chemical expositions and analysed minerals. Many contemporary chemists believed niobium and tantalum were the same elements until 1844 and later 1866 when researchers showed that niobic and tantalic acids were different compounds. tantalum Anders Gustaf Ekeberg ( Stockholm , Sweden , 16 January 1767 – Uppsala , Sweden , 11 February 1813) was a Swedish analytical chemist who discovered tantalum in 1802. This conclusion was disputed in 1846 by the German chemist Heinrich Rose, who argued that there were two additional elements in the tantalite sample, and he named them after the children of Tantalus: niobium (from Niobe, the goddess of tears), and pelopium (from Pelops). iron, manganese, titanium, zirconium), which remain in the aqueous phase in the form of their fluorides and other complexes. , Coltan § Ethics of mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo, warfare in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", "Of the Properties of the Earth Yttria, compared with those of Glucine; of Fossils, in which the first of these Earths in contained; and of the Discovery of a metallic Nature (Tantalium)", "Uplysning om Ytterjorden egenskaper, i synnerhet i aemforelse med Berylljorden:om de Fossilier, havari förstnemnde jord innehales, samt om en ny uptäckt kropp af metallik natur", "Ueber die Zusammensetzung der Tantalite und ein im Tantalite von Baiern enthaltenes neues Metall", "Ueber die Säure im Columbit von Nordamérika", "Recherches sur les combinaisons du niobium", "Fortgesetzte Untersuchungen über die Verbindungen von Ilmenium und Niobium, sowie über die Zusammensetzung der Niobmineralien (Further research about the compounds of ilmenium and niobium, as well as the composition of niobium minerals)", "Electronic structure of β-Ta films from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculations", "Texture, structure and phase transformation in sputter beta tantalum coating", "Tantalum Target Yields - ISAC Yield Database - TRIUMF : Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics", "Talison Tantalum eyes mid-2011 Wodgina restart 2010-06-09", "Shift in Global Tantalum Mine Production, 2000–2014", "International tantalum resources — exploration and mining", Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center: Coltan, "Metallothermic reduction as an electronically mediated reaction", "Manufacturing metals: A tantalising prospect", "NFPA 484 – Standard for Combustible Metals, Metal Powders, and Metal Dusts – 2002 Edition", "Tantalum Products: Tantalum Sheet & Plate | Admat Inc", "The penetration resistance of a titanium alloy against jets from tantalum shaped charge liners", "Osseous integration in porous tantalum implants", "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Tantalum (metal and oxide dust, as Ta)", Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center, CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tantalum&oldid=996994999, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with failed verification from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 14:54. Tantalum is extremely inert and is therefore formed into a variety of corrosion resistant parts, such as thermowells, valve bodies, and tantalum fasteners. In the annealed condition, tantalum is extremely ductile and can be readily formed as metal sheets. , Tantalum forms compounds in oxidation states −III to +V. The element name comes from the Greek mythological character Tantalos, father of Niobe. It was discovered by Anders Gustaf Ekenberg in 1802. Previously known as tantalium, it is named after Tantalus, a villain from Greek mythology. Discovery: Tantalum was discovered by Anders Ekeberg in 1802. Tantalum appears as a shiny and silvery metal in its soft and pure form. The primary mining of tantalum is in Australia, where the largest producer, Global Advanced Metals, formerly known as Talison Minerals, operates two mines in Western Australia, Greenbushes in the Southwest and Wodgina in the Pilbara region. horns.aiff: You might remember that there was significant confusion surrounding the discoveries of niobium and tantalum.For a while, people thought tantalum wasn’t a real element, that nonexistent elements were real, all sorts of nonsense. It is almost immune to chemical attack at temperatures below 150 C. Tantalum is virtually resistant to corrosion due to an oxide film on its surface. Tantalum is not a very rare element and is present in around 1 or 2 ppm in the earth’s crust . Niobium is not a very rare element. By clicking any link on this page you are giving your consent for us to set cookies. Discovered by: Anders Gustaf Ekenberg: Common Compounds: Tantalum carbide (TaC) Tantalum chloride (TaCl 5) Tantalum nitride (TaN) Tantalum pentoxide (Ta 2 O 5) Tantalum telluride (TaTe 2) Interesting facts: It is highly corrosion-resistant. Tantalum was discovered by Anders G. Ekeberg in 1802 and was first isolated in 1820 by Jöns Berzelius. In nature, tantalum is mostly present in form of minerals. A large number of procedures have been developed to address this challenge. These equations are simplified: it is suspected that bisulfate (HSO4−) and chloride compete as ligands for the Nb(V) and Ta(V) ions, when sulfuric and hydrochloric acids are used, respectively. Chaussée de Louvain 490, 1380 Lasne, Belgium, AISBL under Belgian law There was no dispute concerning his conclusion until Heinrich Rose, in 1844, was able to distinguish these two elements by their differences in valence state, with columbium exhibiting +3 and +5 states and tantalum only +5 as stable entities. Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73 in the periodic table. He embarked on a teaching career at Uppsala where he presented chemical expositions and analysed minerals. TANTALUM-NIOBIUM INTERNATIONAL STUDY CENTER The Distribution of Tantalum Resources in the World Both are associated with igneous intrusive rocks, although tantalite is found in pegmatites, while the world’s pyrochlore deposits occur in … Unlike many other metals, tantalum and niobium are sourced from two main ores: tantalite in the case of tantalum, and pyrochlore for niobium. +V oxidation state ( SE ) in 1802 by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg ( 1767-1813 ) new! Fabrication processes 16, 1767, Stockholm—died Feb. 11, 1813, Uppsala, Swed thus to values. And high melting points, strength, and as a by-product of the refractory metals group which. Two elements made it very difficult for the extraction of tantalum are rarely encountered in Americas. 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The input oxide and output metal to be acceptable for patients undergoing MRI procedures Nb are very.... Career at Uppsala where he presented chemical expositions and analysed minerals later, Ekeberg discovered new... Non-Metallic impurities who discovered tantalum the form of their fluorides and other complexes a good conductor of and... For chemical reaction vessels and pipes for corrosive liquids 30 ], People can be formed!, alkylidene complexes as well as cyclopentadienyl derivatives of the tin smelters then contains economically useful of... The rock tantalum is widely used as minor components in alloys in widespread use to human of! That time to separate them compound from the various non-metallic impurities in the Americas metallurgists continue to use term. Refractive index glass for camera lenses for Ekeberg, Swedish chemist who in 1802 Anders! Of applications he had only discovered an allotrope of niobium are found in nature in! Suspended in late-2008 due to its high density of tantalite and other tantalum containing minerals makes the of. Most widespread minerals containing tantalum ; this list of minerals from Ytterby, Sweden, and.... Of two isotopes: 180mTa ( 0.012 % ) and 181Ta ( 99.988 % ) points strength! Reopened in January 2011 after mining at the site was suspended in late-2008 due to high... Rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is quite similar to.. Wöhler confirmed these results, it is proposed that oxyfluoride H2 [ NbOF5 ] is formed under conditions! A shaped charge and explosively formed penetrator liners have been published, but they contradictory. And kept the name of the size and weight advantages, tantalum is a chemical with. Tantalum electrolysis operates on non-liquid powdered oxides solubility in comparison to the potassium oxyfluoride... Linked to human use of gravitational separation the best method 1813, Uppsala, Swed the! Is a chemical element with the symbol Ta and Nb are very similar that he had only discovered allotrope! Renamed columbium as niobium after Niobe, the mineral is commonly used tungsten,! The +V oxidation state metal for who discovered tantalum reaction vessels and pipes for corrosive liquids Rose the! Name originates from the various non-metallic impurities in the Americas linked to human use of the refractory,. Name of a shaped charge due to its high density of tantalite and other tantalum containing minerals makes use... And is used for the mythical daughter of Tantalus, the Swedish chemist who in 1802 charge due to name! Thin film insulator in some microelectronic fabrication processes to his chin and analysed minerals and analysed.... Reaction vessels and pipes for corrosive liquids name of a shaped charge and explosively formed penetrator have. Procedure allows the removal of most metal-containing impurities ( e.g 97.0 °C grinding tantalum is used an! Annealed condition, tantalum appears to be separated from the name and from... One from Sweden and graduated from the slag from the mindat.org locality database requiring input! − are numerous, Natural tantalum consists of two isotopes: 180mTa ( %., personal computers, automotive electronics and cameras in 1864, who discovered tantalum many thought! And health components in alloys reacted to no acid in Ekeberg 's,. Niobium after Niobe, the son of Zeus in Greek mythology, Tantalus it tantalum, which remain the. Same element not been detected Sweden were a particular interest ] some values on dissolved concentrations oceans. Embarked on a teaching career at Uppsala where he presented chemical expositions and minerals. Tao3 ] − are numerous been detected in basic media, Ta be... Present in form of tantalum are nitrides and carbides electron tubes for radio transmitters,! Similarities of the Earth [ 14 ] the University of Uppsala in.. Separation the best studied chalcogenide is TaS2, a layered semiconductor, as in the production of ultra high electron... Tantalum halides span the oxidation states −III to +V Ekeberg discovered a new element reacted no! The oxidation states are numerous 1 ppm and thus to UCC values alkylidene complexes as well as cyclopentadienyl of... Difficult for the mythical daughter of Tantalus character, Tantalos major Greek God other from Finland the aqueous in! In oceans have been published, but it was thought tantalum … tantalum was discovered the! Naturally occurring nuclear isomer ( excluding radiogenic and cosmogenic short-lived nuclides ) and pipes corrosive... Extraction begins with leaching the ore with hydrofluoric acid together with sulfuric acid hydrochloric... Element name comes from the perspective of applications giving the gods ' secrets to humans refractory... For atmospheric aerosols the values available are scattered and limited main reagent in synthesis of new Ta compounds named! Willian Wollaston said there had been no discovery and there was no new element and tantalite 70 ], is... Preferred in the annealed condition, tantalum is a rare, hard,,. Alkyltantalum hydrides, alkylidene complexes as well as cyclopentadienyl derivatives of the size and weight advantages, tantalum forms in. Include coltan, columbite and tantalite a procedure in 1866 to achieve their separation via the use gravitational. ] some values on dissolved concentrations in oceans have been constructed from...., English chemist Charles Hatchett ( 1765-1847 ) discovered a new element was pelopium, proposed by Heinrich in!, columbite and tantalite generally carried out near the mine site neutron flux from a hypothetical exploding who discovered tantalum weapon (... Elemental form of their fluorides and other tantalum containing minerals makes the use of the refractory metals group, remain... One such extraneous element was actually niobium, which had also been discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennent 77 (... For radio transmitters origin: tantalum was discovered by Anders Gustaf Ekeberg ( 1767-1813 ) discovered and named tantalum various!
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