Finally, one might question the presence of problematic unobservable factors that are neither network specific nor peer group specific, but rather individual specific. This suggests that, for juvenile crime, an effective policy should be measured not only by the possible crime reduction it implies but also by the group interactions it engenders. In contrast, Glaeser et al. Because youth referred to juvenile … [note 16] Howell, James C., Gangs in America’s Communities, Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2011. Regressions include weights to control for the AddHealth survey design. [note 17] Horney, Julie, Patrick Tolan, and David Weisburd, “Contextual Influences,” in From Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime: Criminal Careers, Justice Policy, and Prevention, eds. [note 2] Blokland, Arjan A.J., and Hanneke Palmen, “Criminal Career Patterns,” in Persisters and Desisters in Crime From Adolescence Into Adulthood: Explanation, Prevention and Punishment, eds. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). To name a few, (a) peer pressures and partnerships (Kandel and Lazear 1992) where peer pressure arises when individuals deviate from a well-established group norm, for example, individuals are penalized for working less than the group norm, (b) religion (Iannaccone 1992; Berman 2000) since praying is much more satisfying the more average participants there are, and (c) social status and social distance (Akerlof 1980, 1997; Bernheim 1994; Battu et al. (2006). Also, as it is now quite standard (see, e.g., Verdier and Zenou 2004; Conley and Wang 2006), individuals have a moral cost of committing crime equal to cei2, which is reflected here by their degree of honesty c.12 So the higher c, the higher the moral cost and it increases with crime effort. Second, in the absence of experimental data, one can never be sure to have captured all the behavioral intricacies that lead individuals to associate with others. On the contrary, in the local average model, if individuals are ex ante identical and even if their position in the network is different, their (Bonacich) centrality will be the same because it is defined by the matrix Γ and not by G, where Γ is a row normalization matrix of G.16 From an economic viewpoint, in the local aggregate model, different positions in the network imply different effort levels because it is the sum of efforts that matter, whereas in the local average model, the position in the network does not matter since it is the deviation from the average effort of friends that affects the utility. Given these two aspects, the result of Proposition 1 is not that surprising. The costs of committing crime are captured by the probability to be caught pei, which increases with own effort ei, as the apprehension probability increases with one's involvement in crime, times the fine f, that is, the severity of the punishment. Formally, we denote a link from i to j as gij = 1 if j has nominated i as his/her friend, and gij = 0, otherwise. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Weak ties are defined in terms of lack of overlap in personal networks between any two agents; that is, weak ties refer to a network of acquaintances who are less likely to be socially involved with one another (see, in particular, Granovetter 1973). Since individual k ∉ gi, the characteristics of k do not directly affect ei (i‘s outcome) but, since k ∈ gj, they affect ej (j‘s outcome), and since j ∈ gi, ej affects ei. Each criminal belongs to a group of best friends and derives utility from exerting crime effort. None of the coefficients is statistically significant at any conventional level. In their study of a gang located in a black inner-city neighborhood, Levitt and Venkatesh (2000) find that “social/ nonpecuniary factors are likely to play an important role” in criminal decisions and gang activities. Secure .gov websites use HTTPS More specifically, in social networks, each agent has a different peer group, that is, different friends with whom each teenager directly interacts. In education, crime, smoking, teenage pregnancy, school dropout, etc., economists have pointed out the importance of peer effects in explaining these outcomes (see, e.g., Glaeser and Scheinkman 2001). These risks are related to the individual (early aggression, mental health problems, and substance abuse), family (inconsistent parenting and trauma), school (academic … The estimated peer effects remain positive and statistically significant. The success of such policy depends on the ability to identify a social network, and this task may be not as difficult as it seems to be. Delinquency, criminal behaviour, especially that carried out by a juvenile.Depending on the nation of origin, a juvenile becomes an adult anywhere between the ages of 15 to 18, although the age is sometimes lowered for murder and other serious crimes. The indegree of student i, denoted by gi+, is the number of nominations student i receives from other students, that is, gi+ = ∑jgij. These results are formally derived in Bramoullé et al. Furthermore, the effect of the taste for conformity d on equilibrium crime effort ei* is ambiguous because there are two opposite effects. See the recent literature surveys by Goyal (2007) and Jackson (2007, 2008). Juvenile delinquency is defined as, “…a violation of Federal law committed by a person prior to age eighteen which would have been a crime if committed by an adult” (Scalia, 1997). Empirical tests of models of social interactions are quite problematic because of well-known issues that render the identification and measurement of peer effects quite difficult: (a) reflection, which is a particular case of simultaneity (Manski 1993), and (b) endogeneity, which may arise for both peer self-selection and unobserved common (group) correlated effects. 7, eds. We thank the editor, Ian Ayres, two anonymous referees, the participants of the conference “Empirical analysis of networks,” Alicante, May 2008, and of the 10th Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)/Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) European Summer Symposium in Labour Economics, Ammersee, October 2008, for very helpful comments. This feature of social networks guarantees the presence of excluded friends from the reference group (peer group) of each agent, which are however included in the reference group of his/her best (direct) friends. Shah Hoseyni, Tayebeh. [note 8] Le Blanc, Marc, and Marcel Fréchette, Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth: Multilevel Developmental Perspectives, Research in Criminology, New York: Springer, 1989. The histograms show on the horizontal axes the percentiles of the empirical distribution of network component members corresponding to the percentages 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, 100, and in the vertical axes the number of networks having number of members between the i and i − 1 percentile. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. OLS estimates and SE (in parentheses) are reported. By matching the identification numbers of the friendship nominations to respondents’ identification numbers, one can obtain information on the characteristics of nominated friends. It ranges from 9.8 to 1.4 moving from petty crimes to more serious crimes. In the present article, we propose a model that explains how conformity and deterrence impact on criminal activities. 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