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Our worksheet bundle includes a fact file and printable worksheets and student activities. Motte and bailey castles were built by the Norman invaders after they invaded in 1066. William responded by marching his feared army to a trouble spot and re-asserting his authority. Many of them were built in the 11th and 12th century around Europe. As a result, Roger embarked on a major castle-building programme with over 70 motte and bailey castles built. These castles were built across northern Europe from the 10th century onwards, spreading from Normandy and Anjou in France, into the Holy Roman Empire in the 11th century. William the Conqueror (then the Duke of Normandy), observing their success in neighbouring Anjou, began to build them on his Norman lands. The smaller mottes could only support a simple tower but the larger ones could support more complex structures that often contain multiple rooms. Moreover, Norman designers found out that the wider the ditch was dug, the deeper and steeper the sides of the scarp could be, making it even more difficult for attackers. Get your evenings and weekends back? The Motte was a steep-sided artificial mound, built in much the same way as a sand-castles are built. Often, the ditch of the motte and the bailey joined, forming a figure of eight around the castle. These structures consist of a hill (the motte) and a courtyard (the bailey). He allowed the Saxon nobles to keep their land and he tried to learn English. A Motte and Bailey castle could be erected very quickly, and some of them took anywhere between a few days and a few weeks to build. It is believed that over 1000 motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. Once William had firmly established his rule in England, he built huge stone keep castles. The Normans constructed these sites as administrative centres for their It is possible that local towns people were coerced into working extremely hard to complete the task. Facts about Motte and Bailey Castles 3: The style of motte and bailey castle There are many countries which used motte and bailey style, especially in northern Europe, Normandy, and Britain. Motte-and-Bailey Castles In 1067, William started building the Tower of London to show everyone how powerful he was. Stone buildings could be much larger and grander than simple wooden designs, providing more luxurious accommodation for nobles See more ideas about motte and bailey castle, castle, oakham. The motte was often artificial and on top, a wooden or stone tower was built. William accepted the surrender of the Anglo-Saxon nobles at Berkhamsted Castle, north-west of London – arguably his finest motte and bailey castle. Motte and bailey castles were first used by the Normans as far back as 1020 AD. Timber also tends to rot easily, and many of these early castles ran into disrepair and were abandoned. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. French noblemen took to protecting themselves in fortified buildings that were known as castellans – these served as private fortifications in which people and animals were protected from these feared invaderseval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historylearningsite_co_uk-medrectangle-4','ezslot_3',114,'0','0'])); Some of the Vikings eventually stayed in northern France and the Norsemen became the Normans. The first motte-and-bailey castle was built at Vincy, Northern France, in 979. 3 The first castles built by William the Conqueror were motte and bailey castles. Motte and bailey castles were first used in England by the Normans. Between 1070 and 1087 an additional 85 stone castles were built across England. There are motte and bailey castles in every county of Wales, England, and Scotland. This castle was not heavily defended and the Normans soldiers there were beaten and the castle was burnt to the ground. The yard was usually surrounded by a wooden fence called a “palisade” and then a ditch. Motte and bailey castles became common in England at the time of William the Conqueror’s death in 1087.The construction of them prompted the future of a huge programme of castle building in England and Wales. Attackers would often find out that the keep on top of the motte was extremely hard to capture as the height of the motte and the ditch surrounding it gave its defenders significant advantages. The designers could use an existing mound or hill for the foundation and this would often save significant construction time. This land bordered Wales and the area was seen as a refuge for thieves and villains. These structures are of northern European design, and can also be found in Denmark and Germany, but also even in southern Italy, and occasionally beyond. The first recorded motte in England was in 1051 when French castle builders were building one for the English king in Hereford. The castle on the motte was reached either by wooden stairs that could be destroyed if the castle itself was attacked or by a ‘flying bridge’ that connected the bailey to the castle. With the population of England seemingly subdued, William started a programme of building. Most of these were motte-and-bailey castles, built using forced Anglo-Saxon workers: the motte was a high mound on which a wooden tower was constructed; the bailey was the courtyard at the bottom of the mound with: living quarters, stables, workshops and perhaps a chapel. Thanks to the Norman influence in southern Italy and Sicily, a small number of castles were also built there. These castles were motte-and-bailey castles, which were quick and cheep to build and required no skilled labor. In these castles, there was a fortified building (the castle) on top of a man-made hill called a motte. The word “bailey” comes from the Norman-French “baille”, it refers to a low yard. The castle is named after Norman words. In many senses, it was seen as bandit-country then. Stone castles replaced the motte and bailey castles but the stone castles also changed over time. It was now that William took away land from the Saxon nobles and gave it to his own nobility. Also, the broad base of the mottes meant that attacks could come from any direction. Building castles then was very labour intensive. Building Motte and Bailey castles were a great way of securing the towns that had submitted to his power. No original complete motte and bailey castles exist in England, but the huge stone fortifications William started certainly are. By the end of the 11th century, these structures, especially the ones made out of earth and timber, began to fall from favour for various reasons. Feb 27, 2017 - Explore Caitriona O'Dare's board "motte and bailey castle" on Pinterest. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. By the time of Edward I, concentric castles were being built. So exactly how were they built? A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle, with a wooden or stone keep situated on a raised earthwork called a motte, accompanied by an enclosed courtyard, or bailey, surrounded by a protective ditch and palisade. Motte and Bailiey castles were the earliest form of castles built completely from scratch by the Normans. This was the factor that allowed the Normans to consolidate their power very quickly, as they moved on to conquer each region. The motte was a _____ hill, which would normally be man-made. Do you want to save dozens of hours in time? The bailey … The Normans achieved great fame for their castle building. Motte and bailey castles were a common feature in England by the death of William the Conqueror in 1087. A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle situated on a raised earthwork and surrounded by a protective fence. If some motte-and-bailey castles could be constructed in less than a month, a medium size stone castle would have taken a minimum of five years to build, while a large size stone castle … Stone castles were extremely expensive and took a great deal of time to build. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. The mottes were built layer upon layer. Be able to teach Motte and Bailey Castles to your students? In many senses, it was seen as bandit-country then. They were relatively easy to build with unskilled labour, however, they were formidable. By digging a deep circular ditch, and piling up the earth taken from the ditch into the centre. The motte was often artificial and on top, a wooden or stone tower was built. Over the following decades the Dukes of Anjou popularised the design. The sides were steep to prevent attackers running up them quickly. A motte-and-bailey is a kind of castle, or fortification. Motte and bailey castles were quick and cheap to erect - - some only took a couple of weeks! The first Norman castles built in England were designed after the timber and earthwork castles on the Continent. Perfect for both the classroom and homeschooling! Click any of the example images below to view a larger version. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. Even shooting firing arrows at the castle could have devastating effects. This served as a final fighting place where soldiers would retreat if the rest of the castle had been breached. Mottes varied considerably in size, usually with the minimum height being at around 3 metres. When was the first Motte and Bailey Castle built? These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. A motte is a built-up mound of land, and a bailey is an enclosed courtyard. Was such a feat possible? This meant that a motte and bailey castle could be built quite quickly using just local manpower, earth and timber. Some of the largest mottes could be as high as 30 metres and as large as 90 metres in diameter, but they were rarely used. As a mark of their success, there were around 1,000 motte and bailey castles built in England, Wales and Scotland. The motte was a tall, _____ hill which would have usually been man-made. One of William’s closest acquaintances was Roger of Montgomery who became earl of Shropshire. Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. Motte and Bailey Castles were a common design of castles in the Middle Ages, combining ease of construction with defensibility. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. William was furious and decided to lay waste the north of England – the so-called “Harrying of the North”. William was a highly skilled and feared soldier who had learned his military skills in northern France. Motte and Bailey Castle Facts. It is very hard to determine whether a mound is man-made or natural without excavation. The reason for this was that it took an enormous effort to pile up such a huge volume of earth. By the end of the 13th century, the design was largely superseded by alternative forms of fortification, but the earthworks remain a prominent feature in many countries. See more ideas about Motte and bailey castle, Castle project, Norman castle. Why were Motte and Bailey Castles Important? Once the people of England had been tamed, William moved onto grander castles. A motte-and-bailey is a kind of castle, or fortification.Many of them were built in the 11th and 12th century around Europe.. An earth mound, or motte, with a tower or lookout on top was built next to a yard, or bailey. 1066–1500 This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in … They used these castles to make their settlement of England more secure following William the Conqueror’s victory in the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Many of them were used as the foundations for the newly designed stone castles, and such, the motte and bailey castles morphed, and endured, for a couple of hundred years more. Castles were built in Exeter, Warwick, Nottingham, Lincoln, Huntingdon, Cambridge and York. This is why the English/Welsh border has so many surviving mottes near it.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'historylearningsite_co_uk-leader-1','ezslot_13',115,'0','0'])); No-one is quite sure how many motte and bailey castles were built in England by the Normans. They were relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel small attacks. Raiders would usually use this to their advantage and would often surprise the defenders inside the keep. Managed by Caboodle UX design studio in London, Citation: C N Trueman "Motte and Bailey Castles", Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the, French kings had gained a reputation for building castles. This motte took fifty men eighty days to build. Motte and bailey castles were adopted in Scotland, Ireland, the Low Countries and Denmark in the 12th and 13th centuries. They used motte-and-bailey castles after winning the Battle of Hastings in 1066 to keep their settlements safe and secure. After his victory at Hastings in 1066, William moved around the south coast to Dover. Those who rebelled against William’s power, gathered in the north of England. To avoid the perils of fire, improve durability, and increase the castle’s defence, the obvious solution was to replace timber with stone as much as possible. However, building a motte was a skilled achievement. The bailey was the centre of domestic life within the castle and could contain a variety of buildings, like halls, kitchens, stores, stables, a chapel, barracks and workshops. The first record of a motte and bailey castle in France appeared at the start of the 11th Century. Alternatively, some other castles were designed with a single bailey and two mottes, such as Lincoln Castle. This was their way of coping with the constant attacks by Vikings from Scandinavia. A single tower was built on (or partially within) the motte or earth mound while a courtyard area or bailey at the base was protected by a wooden palisade and an encircling outer ditch. The These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. Their biggest advantage, the fact that the primary building material was wood, became the greatest disadvantage. The castles had to be built in a hurry, so they were originally built of timber on an earth mound (a motte). In England, the first proper castles were the motte and bailey castles. It was now, after the “Harrying of the North”, that castles were built across a great deal of England. Why Were Castles Built in Norman Times? Norman soldiers destroyed anything that might have been of use to those who lived in the north. Many were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries, favoured as a relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel most small attacks. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. The Normans constructed these sites as administrative centres for their newly acquired kingdom, and as a way of barracking troops to maintain control over local populations. York Castle was also rebuilt. This land bordered Wales and the area was seen as a refuge for thieves and villains. William and his men were invaders and his army would have had to be on a constant guard especially in the immediate days after Hastings. William started his reign as king of England with uncharacteristic diplomacy. Two castles were built in Canterbury by the Normans who made use of the fortified Roman town walls. The keep on top of the motte served as the castle’s primary defensive element. They were quick to build, a visible sign of the Normans power and by 1070, the Normans had great expertise in building them. The motte and bailey castle at Dover took just eight days to build – according to William of Poitiers who was William’s chaplain. These castles, which were quick to build, sprang up all over England during the first years after the Battle of Hastings. Stone castles were built taller and gave better protection against attack, fire and cold rainy weather. Motte and bailey castles were a sign that feared Norman soldiers were never too far away. School History is the largest library of history teaching and study resources on the internet. A motte was protected by a ditch that surrounded the area, and this would have been the source of the earth and soil for constructing the mound itself. In France, motte-and-bailey castles were not built after the start of the 12th century, and mottes ceased to be built in most of England after around This is why the English/Welsh border has so many surviving mottes near it. Motte and bailey castles appeared in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. After William’s response to the rebellion in the north of England, many areas were simply too scared to rebel. A motte is a built-up mound of land, and a bailey is an enclosed courtyard. Windsor Castle, in England, is an example of a motte and bailey castle. While the concept of ditches, ramparts and stone walls as defensive measures is ancient, raising a motte is a medieval innovation. French kings had gained a reputation for building castles. Motte-and-bailey castles also began to appear in Denmark at this time, although in fewer numbers, perhaps because feudalism was less widespread there. Motte and Bailey castles were first built in Normandy. The largest towers were often equipped with cellars and granaries, more living rooms and rooms for the watchmen, and the servants appointed there. The Normans then quickly ordered the construction of many other castles to show the English that they were now in control. Motte and Bailey castles were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries. In England and Wales, only 7% of mottes were taller than 10 metres, around 24% were between 5 and 10 metres, and 69% were less than 5 metres in height. It wasn’t uncommon for the tower to be built and then partially buried within the mound, with the buried part forming a cellar. The word “motte” is the French version of the Latin “mota”, it was an early word for “turf” and by the 12th century it was used to refer to the castle design itself. Description. This was their way of coping with the constant attacks by Vikings from Scandinavia. They were abandoned because they required extensive and often costly repairs and ongoing maintenance. When William of Normandy invaded England in 1066, he built two wooden castles in two weeks! Slowly motte-and-bailey castles … The earliest of these castles were constructed from timber and earth alone. Motte and Bailey castles were made out of wood. Motte and bailey castles were an early type of castle. Motte and Bailey Castles were a common design of castles in the Middle Ages, combining ease of construction with defensibility. For example, a large motte is estimated to have required around 24,000 man-days of work, while the smaller ones required around 1,000. The huge motte with its timber tower on top gave the defenders an advantage. Some mottes were built over older artificial structures, such as Bronze Age barrows. Oct 23, 2017 - Just like our very own Norman Oakham Castle (1180 -1190). Motte and bailey castles were built by the Norman invaders after they invaded in 1066. The Castle was defended by palisades, fences of tree-trunks or roughly cut plank, which ran round the Motte top and the Bailey … William had 8000 men to try and consolidate his power in England. However, the castle style can also be seen in the Germany, Denmark, Ireland, … In order for a large tower to be built, that would accommodate the lord and his servants, castles needed bigger mottes. How were these castles built? When the timber Motte and Bailey Castles were completed many were covered in white plaster - which made them look as if they were made of stone. The design of each castle basically adapted to its natural surroundings. Relatively quick to build, the height of the mound made the tower difficult to attack while the wall offered a place of refuge from opportunist raiders. Though these structures had a simplistic and relatively rough design, they were highly effective, having excellent defensive capabilities. Some castles had more than one bailey, and a good example of this is Windsor Castle in England, where several baileys flank the motte. 3 The first castles built by William the Conqueror were motte and bailey castles. When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, he brought this castle design with him. They were called motte and bailey castles.. A timber keep, or fort, was perched on top of an earth mound, or motte.The height of the motte allowed the soldiers to keep watch over the surrounding country. The sides were steep to make it difficult to _____.The keep (the castle) would sit at the top of the motte and was the building where the owners of the castle would live. How have stone castles improved over the years, and why? The bailey was linked to the motte either by a flying bridge stretching between the two, or, more commonly in England, by steps cut into the motte. They were relatively cheap but effective defensive fortification that could repel small attacks. Such defensive structures were After William defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings, he struggled for five years winning battles against rebels in the north of England and building Norman motte and bailey castles everywhere, which consolidated his new realm. New motte and bailey castles stopped being built by the late 1200s. The bailey was designed so that any point on its circumference (outer edge) would be within bowshot of the tower. He then had a castle built there – a very visible sign of the Norman’s power. In 1069, they targeted the most obvious sign of William’s authority – the castle of York. Once the people of England had been tamed, William moved onto grander castles. This meant that there was little space to house soldiers and peasants, let alone the stature yearned for by many nobles. One of William’s closest acquaintances was Roger of Montgomery who became earl of Shropshire. An oval bailey adjoining the motte to the south west is defined by a rampart topped with a curtain wall and includes a gatehouse, all surrounded by an outer ditch preserved as a … North”, that would accommodate the lord and his servants, castles needed bigger mottes assist drainage surrounded... Obvious sign of William’s closest acquaintances was Roger of Montgomery who became earl of Shropshire took many to... 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