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Prior to this time, world superpowers such as Portugal, France, and Britain had already set up colonies in Africa. However, the map shows Namibia. Its area was 994,996 km 2 (384,170 sq mi), nearly three times the size of Germany today. To fix this problem members of the ‘surplus’ population were exported as colonists in Algeria, Tunisisa, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Mozambique, In German East Africa this was much harder to pursue as agriculture was less developed, and farmers sometimes needed to be coerced into producing certain crops. [15] The ‘cotton gospel’ was received less enthusiastically in Tanganyika than it was in British Uganda. It was a mixture of nationalism, militarism, and racism that prompted Kaiser Wilhelm II to send a large army to crush the Herero. Why Did Europe Colonize Africa? The Germans also started to treat the Herero harshly, started minor instances of conflict with them, and raped their women; the Herero became convinced that resistance was the only way to combat this. The material thus collected was first given to the world in three publications - as regards German South-West Africa, in the Blue Book submitted to the House of Commons in 1918; in regard to the other colonies, the British Foreign Office Handbook on The Treatment of Natives in German Colonies, which has already been mentioned, and the notorious and libellous pamphlet of Evans Lewin. The German colonization of Africa took place during two distinct periods. However, from certain parts of southern Spain you can actually SEE Moroccan, north African land with your naked eye, yet the Spaniards never really tried to colonize that part of the world. During a period lasting from 1881 to 1914 in what was known as the Scramble for Africa, several European nations took control over areas of the African continent. By Staff Writer Last Updated Apr 7, 2020 3:43:16 PM ET. Mainly, the Egyptian, Nubian and Carthaginian Civilization. Eventually, the main coastal towns, which were more settled, were converted into headquarters of administration districts, and civilian district officers were appointed. - Positive trade Colonialization is the action by which a foreign power occupies another country, and then exploit the economic resources of the occupied country for benefit of their native land (foreign country). Germany decided to create a colony in East Africa under the leadership of Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in February 1885. Occupation and Domination In 1865 he succeeded his father, Leopold I, to the Belgian throne. This activity led to the depopulation of inland zones. The amount of land that each country owned was considered to be a great indicator of power, with every state wanting to do better than their neighbor. [34] This tension between the Allied and German governments over German colonies lasted until the outbreak of World War II. [39] After the Germans pushed the Herero deeper and deeper into the Kalahari, they created a wall of guard posts to seal them off. In fact, European countries competed with one another to see who could attain the most power and growth. South Africa allowed Britain assess to the Silk Road and eventual trade with China. But the truth was that they just wanted what was in Africa. After the conquest of African decentralized and centralized states, the European powers set about establishing colonial state systems. It is sparsely mentioned in history books. Parts of contemporary Chad, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, the Central African Republic and the Republic of the Congo were also under the control of German Africa at various points during its existence. The Brandenburg African Company was chartered in 1682 and established two small settlements on the Gold Coast of what is today Ghana. Germany had recently unified in 1871 and the rapid industrialization of their society required a steady stream of raw materials. [17] However, this was quickly discovered to be inefficient as many of these firms went bankrupt because of mismanagement and African resistance. Finding cheap labor in the form of slaves was another key motivation to Europeans. Czela and blackirishboy both argue that prestige was important; it was especially important in Germany's case. The German Colonial empire got its start around 1884, and in those years they acquired several territories in Africa: German East Africa (including present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania); German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia), German Cameroon (including parts of present-day Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Chad and Nigeria); and Togoland (present-day Togo and parts of Ghana). Relevance. Theodor Leutwein. Thus, the history of Germany as a colonial power is rather short, about 30 years, and had less of … Moreover, Bismarck was suspect of France and Great Britain’s true intentions in Africa and this only furthered his desire to create an East African colony. [19] A slow and cautious interest in Kamerun had been growing among German businessmen for thirty years before the finalization of Kamerun as a protectorate. Although Germany did positively influence their African colonies, there still were some disadvantages to colonization that the colonies apposed. While Europeans and Africans had established relationships in a variety of settings for centuries, the 1880s mark a major turning point in European attitudes toward Africa. Its area was 994,996 km 2 (384,170 sq mi), nearly three times the size of Germany today. Before the Treaty of Versailles was even signed, Great Britain, France, and Japan had total control over the German colonies since 1915, except for East Africa. This all happened in the 1500's. This vast area was both heavily arid with two deserts, the Namib and the Kalahari, as well as being rich in natural resources such as copper, gold, diamonds, uranium and lead. The Colonization of Africa: During the 19th-20th centuries, the African continent was colonized mainly by European powers like Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, and Russia. The Germans forced many Herero into a war they did not want. Between the 1870s and 1900, Africa faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization. [11] Moreover, the imposition of tax in 1898 initiated the transition to the second phase of administration whose chief characteristic was the collapse of the compromises made earlier in the decade. To persuade their surrender, the Germans told the Herero they would be allowed to return to their homeland; that they had been pardoned by the Kaiser. [1] Germany had recently unified in 1871 and the rapid industrialization of their society required a steady stream of raw materials. Nevertheless, the German interest in the interior continued, heightened by favorable reports from travelers such as Heinrich Barth in the 1850's; Gerhard Rohlfs in the 1860’s; and Gustav Nachtigal, from 1869 to 1873. The boldest among them argued that South-West Africa was the site of … 6 years ago. The formation of impressive rail networks and telegraph systems further supported this opinion. Germany eventually did get some colonial presence in Africa. Key Terms This caused food shortages. Many of the old African collaborators did not necessarily lose power in this second stage of German administration, but to survive they had to adapt themselves and often reorganize their societies.[14]. German planners anticipated that the fate of their African empire would be settled, if necessary, by wars in Europe, not in Africa itself. he colony came into existence during the 1880s and ended with Imperial Germany's defeat in World War I. When Bismarck decides to put together an off-the-peg German empire in Africa, Togo is one of the three places which he selects on the west coast. Life for the African people during colonization was difficult. The Germans were aided by the severe ethnic and political fragmentation of the inland groups. What:Germany colonized Namibia Where:Venezuela How:They did violent actions and started to resist with German’s rule. [40] However, this was a lie and the Herero that were rounded up were sent to concentration camps. Why: They wanted the natural resources of Namibia, and because of boring politics, they were colonizing Namibia. Resisting made the percentage of survival much less for Africans and brutality became synonymous with German imperialism in Africa. There were several different reasons why European colonizers set their sights on the African continent Some of the most prominent ones are outlined below: The 19th century was home to the industrial revolution, a time when many European nations were flourishing in the technology sector of the time. The Germans offered political and military support for their allies in exchange for the recognition of German authority, provision of labor and building materials, and the use of diplomacy instead of force in settling issues. Cotton production in German East Africa was administered in a much different manner than in other areas of the continent. The Germans encircled the Herero but left one part open for them to escape into the Kalahari, expecting them to die of starvation and thirst. Before that time, what is twenty-first-century Italy consisted of several independent kingdoms. These troops were all that stood between the meagre German administration and the African population. There were a wide range of reasons for Germany's colonization of Africa, especially after the Berlin Conference. why did Germany colonize Rwanda? Unification brought Italians together as one people and created a sense of shared national identity—as Italians rather than as Florentines or Neapolitans—including a feeling of common national destiny. German control of Togoland dates back to February 1884 when a group of German soldiers kidnapped chiefs in Anecho, in present-day south-Eastern Togo and forced them into negotiations among the German warship Sophie. During its thirty-year occupation by the Germans, Togoland was held up by many European imperialists as a model colony, primarily because the German regime produced balanced budgets and was devoid of any major wars. [29] The Germans made sure that they had complete control over both Togoland and its inhabitants. By Antonio Ochoa There were many reasons why the European people wanted to colonize Africa. [13] However, this was not what happened in other scenarios. The ultimate goal of Europeans was to establish a market economy and that was done by compelling Africans into a labor pool. To a smaller extent, Germany and Italy had, too. Namibia, a former German colony, is situated towards the north west of South Africa. Colonization became so popular during this period for many reasons. Ex-'Basketball Wives' star hospitalized with COVID-19. A key ideology behind imperialism, which in turn informs colonialism, is the idea of racial superiority or cultural superiority. Britain, Germany didn't have enough of a navy to support overseas colonies, but had an army that was more than willing to annex adjacent territories. Germany decided to create a colony in East Africa under the leadership of Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarckin February 1885. Social As a side effect of the Industrial Revolution unemployment, poverty, and homelessness had become prevalent throughout Europe. [36] The Germans expected to come in and simply begin colonization efforts, but instead they were renting land from the people who they were supposed to be colonizing; a paradoxical relationship. In colonizing Africa, Germany (as well as other European states) established its own legitimacy. [25] The Germans used these troops to combat many revolts against their rule. [18] Most companies eventually gave way to governmental authority by the beginning of the 1920s, but the German colonial empire had already collapsed by that point. Moreover, Bismarck was suspect of France and Great Britain’s true intentions in Africa and this only furthered his desire to cr… These German companies operated out of Bremen and Hamburg; the businesses were at the commercial and political frontier of the expanding colonial state. The prospect of a colony in East Africa was too much to ignore; it was perfect for the continued economic stability and growth of Germany. However, due to the fact that European powers were disproportionately aided by the products of the industrial revolution, many former empires and kingdoms that had been present in Africa were at a disadvantage and lost to the colonizers. The Congo was under King Leopold II’s rule (eventually Belgian) and Senegal, Cameroon, and several other colonies in the western Sudan and Central Africa were gained by France. What countries did Italy colonize in Africa? Section three discusses Germany’s role in the European “scramble for Africa” and such developments as the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1884 and the 1884−85 Congress of Berlin. The Orange River marks the border between the two countries. Why Mahomes' mom wasn't happy with NFL announcers. [31] A British writer, Albert E Calvert, tried to understand this distinct difference; Calvert argued that the natives of Togoland ended their ‘allegiance’ with the Germans as soon as the Germans were put in a position of pressure, that the terrible treatment they endured under the Germans was the reason for their welcoming of the British and French invasion as well as the joy they exerted after the German surrender. Prior to this time, world superpowers such as Portugal, France, and Britain had already set up colonies in Africa. Of these 14 nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time. Germany lost control of its colonial empire at the beginning of World War I when its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. Germany was severely weakened by the Treaty of Versailles but attempted everything to regain their overseas empire. Due to its dry conditions Namibia’s population was forced to adapt to its environmental situation. The first was in 1884/1885 after the Berlin Conference when European states divided Africa in a way that can still be seen in the rather straight borders of today’s Africa. [4] Resistance was seen all over German controlled Africa, but the German soldiers and officers came from the best army in the world, so the action of rebelling didn’t have much of a long-term impact. By 1900 a significant part of Africa had been colonized by mainly seven European powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. At the time of the Scramble for Africa, major world powers like Great Britain, France, and Spain were competing for power on the European stage. By Staff Writer Last Updated Apr 7, 2020 3:43:16 PM ET. The boldest among them argued that South-West Africa … It also allowed Britain to expand its world empire and create an image as the most powerful navy in the world. At the same time, African societies put up various forms of resistance against the attempt to colonize their … Orders from the capital may have taken months to reach remote districts and a remote station could expect a visit from a senior official only once a decade. Germany was also active in the Pacific, annexing a series of islands that would be called Much like what occurred in North and South America, European colonizers brought the Christian faith to Africa through missionaries. German East Africa was a German colony in East Africa, which included what are now Burundi, Rwanda and Tanganyika (the mainland part of present Tanzania). In 1919, after World War I, Germany had to cede its colonies to France and Britain. The German colony rented slaves to private companies, but some companies were so big that they ran their own concentration camps. Italy was one of the European countries with colonies in Africa during the modern period. The Germans believed this behavior was entirely acceptable, there was an official sanctioning of genocide. The Germans colonized South West Africa in a different manner than the rest of their holdings. Under his rule Germany acquired several colonies in Africa and a few tiny territories in Asia. By European standards, Italy is a young country, having become unified as one nation only in 1861. By 1898, the Germans controlled all of Tanganyika’s main population centers and lines of communication. By: Jennifer Ledesma Gomez Slavery Trade - Needed a work face to farm in the new world. Hover for more information. In popular parlance, discussions of colonialism in Africa usually focus on the European conquests that resulted in the scramble for Africa after the Berlin Conference in the 19th century. During the Scramble for Africa, Germany had only recently unified and was still trying to establish itself as a power on the European continent. At the height of colonization, only three sections of the continent had been untouched by European settlers: In the years 1884 and 1885, the Berlin Conference formalized European colonization of Africa. 7 years ago. The Germans thought the dispossession of their colonies was an injustice, and reiterated their economic need of the colonies, and their duty to civilize the backward races. When Hitler formally renounced "colonies" in 1935, he meant "overseas" colonies, not the "close to home" variety in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. South Western Africa was a German colony from 1884 until 1915. Germany colonized Rwanda from 1896 to 1918 under the German East Africa -. German officials understood that their people needed space to grow and prosper; the Germans faced a choice of decline through lack of space and loss of population (as many had already left for America), or expanding into new lands. Together these four territories constituted Germany's African presence in the age of New Imperialism. By 1916, only in remote jungle regions in East Africa did the German forces hold out. The key to the initial German interest in Kamerun was German businessmen's desire for trade. Four Reasons for colonization of Africa. These were colonies unsuccessfully settled by Brandenburg-Prussia (part of the Holy Roman Empire realm), after 1701 Kingdom of Prussia, before the foundation of the German Empire in 1871.. Africa. 4 Answers. Africa, the cradle of human origin, was home to several powerful ancient civilizations. 4 Educator answers. Colonialism is the act by which a country or state exerts control and domination over another country or state. While Togoland might have appeared to be "model" to Europeans, Togolanders endured a regime characterized by the aforementioned labor and taxation policies, harsh punishments inflicted by German district officers, grossly inadequate health care and education systems, and prohibition from many commercial activities. For example, Mtinginya of Usongo, a powerful Nyamwezi chief aided the Germans against Isike; but by 1901, he became a potential enemy and when he died a year or two later, his chiefdom was deliberately dismantled. What was colonization? Towards the end of the 19 th century European countries such as England, France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, and Italy began colonizing Africa which became known as “The Scramble for Africa”. Because the region lacked mineral resources (its phosphate reserves were not then known), Germany concentrated on agricultural development. Did positively influence their African colonies, there still were some disadvantages to colonization the! 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